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A bitstream or binary sequence is a sequence of bits. A byte stream is a sequence of bytes. Typically, each byte is an 8-bit quantity, and so the term octet-stream is sometimes used interchangeably. An octet may be encoded as a sequence of 8 bits in multiple different ways (see bit numbering) so there is no unique and direct translation between byte streams and bitstreams.

Based on the video resolution and frame rate, it becomes necessary to compress video data using a codec. Codecs can use two types of data compression: lossy compression and lossless compression. Source coding is applied to minimize the number of bits per unit of time required to represent the source output. In codecs, various data encoding algorithms are used. The most popular codecs currently are (AOM) AV1, (AOM) AV2, H.266 VVC, H.265 HEVC, H.264 AVC, H.263, H.262, VC1, Thor / Daala, MPEG2, VP8, VP9, ​​ AVS2 / AVS3, V-nova, EVC